The R Journal: article published in 2020, volume 12:1

Provenance of R’s Gradient Optimizers PDF download
John C. Nash , The R Journal (2020) 12:1, pages 477-483.

Gradient optimization methods (function minimizers) are well-represented in both the base and package universe of R (R Core Team, 2019). However, some of the methods and the codes developed from them were published before standards for hardware and software were established, in particular the IEEE arithmetic (IEEE, 1985). There have been cases of unexpected behaviour or outright errors, and these are the focus of the histoRicalg project. A summary history of some of the tools in R for gradient optimization methods is presented to give perspective on such methods and the occasions where they could be used effectively.

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  author = {John C. Nash},
  title = {{Provenance of R’s Gradient Optimizers}},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {{The R Journal}},
  doi = {10.32614/RJ-2020-029},
  url = {},
  pages = {477--483},
  volume = {12},
  number = {1}